Walnut is a plant that has no special requirements for soil,but soil analysis is necessary, as well as basic guidelines for what is the most suitable for walnut.
Soil analysis: The analysis should be done in an accredited laboratory, for walnuts it is necessary to take two samples from a depth of 0-30 cm, and a depth of 30-60 cm. You will get recommendations for fertilizing from the lab, also from our team.
The walnut corresponds to deep, loose land, chernozem, alluvial, sandy soils. Heavy, cold and damp lands do not suit it. It is also important that the land has a good humidity regime and that is aerated.
Walnut reaches up to 800 m above sea level, it is suitable for slightly sloping terrains, although the flat terrain is also suitable. It corresponds to the proximity of the river and the lake.
Preparation depends largely on what kind of soil is selected for growing walnut. The preparation includes: shrinkage, cleaning, leveling, possible drainage of the soil, rigging, undermining …
Also, if we have a clean ground , it is possible to plant walnuts only by digging holes, which we do not recommend.
İt is the best to start preparation for autumn planting in spring. With good mechanization and suitable ground, it is possible to do preparation for planting one month before planting.
Trenching is an important measure for intensive planting,special plows are used for this purpose. If trenching is not possible, do the undermining or deeper plowing.
After that, the soil is aligned, prepared for digging holes. During the preparation of the soil, depending on the soil analysis, it is good to make basic fertilization by adding minerals as needed and organic compost additives, manure…
SELECTION OF PLOTS AND LAYOUT OF SAPLINGS
The ideal plot for the nut is slightly inclined. The arrangement of the saplings is possible in square, rectangle and triangle. One varietal pollinator or even two more varieties should be included in the planting plan.
According to the latest research for our lateral varieties of walnuts in intensive plantations, we recommend the following:
- On 15-20 plants of the main variety goes 1 pollinator (5 – 7%)
- Pollinators are placed in all rows in a zigzag schedule. They shouldn’t be one against the other. In the first lines the number of pollinators may be smaller, and they should be seted in the direction of the wind.
- Distance between rows and in the rows: 8X4, 7X5, 6X5, 6X6
- On the recommendation of turkish colleagues we usually advise the distance of 7X5 meters
- This arrangement is the number of trees per 1 ha of 280-320.
Note: This is a new and modern way of cultivating walnuts that is very different from our traditional understanding. Plants need enough space, light, water and air, and we allow it with this schedule.
If the soil is not trenched, it is necessary to mechanically or manually dig up holes with a diameter of 1 – 1.5 m and a depth of 60-100 cm. The recommendations are different and depend on the type of soil and other factors. If it is trenched, the holes are smaller and in size of 60-80 cm of diameter, and 30-50 cm deep.
The soil in the hole must not be compact. If it is diged with a plow, it is necessary to use a little hoe to handle the holes.
It is best to dig them early, or at least ten days before planting.
PREPARATION OF SAPLINGS FOR PLANTING
Before planting, the saplings should be putted overnight in a solution of bales, clay and water or even better in the phytotohormon solution or microbiological fertilizer.
We prepare the saplings by reducing the main root 2-3 cm or more until a white part appears and by that we see that the root is completely healthy. Cut the lateral roots as needed (those that are damaged or too long). It is not necessary to cut everything.
Make a solution of 1 l Bordeaux mixture per 50 liters of water and keep the saplings there for 10 minutes. This is a obligatory measure of disinfection of saplings.
At the bottom of the hole, place about 2 shovels of a well-burnt manure, over that layer of soil to cover the manure, because the roots must not touch it. If you do not have a burnt manure, you can possibly add to the bottom of the hole a smaller amount (a glass for yogurt no more) NPK fertilizer 8:16:24 or 16:16:16. With artificial fertilizers should not be exaggerated.If you are not sure, it is best to fertilize after planting around the plant.
Once you have covered the manure, you can start with the planting. Each saplings should be placed at the same depth. The neck of roots should be level with the surface of the ground. The depth is determined by the lath. We take a saplings, one man should hold it uprightly and arrange the veins of root, and the other slowly, spreads the soil over the veins of root. . When all veins are covered, the hole runs from the periphery to the middle. We can add manure fertilizer even when the veins are covered. A smaller amount is mixed with the soil and applied to the surface. The walnut is covered 5 to 10 cm to the graft (the graft is not covered).The graft shouldt be turn to the south. We can make the strain around the saplings for watering. Each plant is watered with 15-20 lit water. OBLIGATORY.
A wooden stick that is placed as a support for plant should be immersed in a solution of blue stone. Such as can be used for the next 5 years. If there is wild animal on the field, it is necessary to protect the saplings with netting.
More about saplings:
Saplings are two-years old and 100-300 cm high. The root system has at least three basic veins, the cross-section of the connected place has grown to 90%. They do not have mechanical damage. They were extracted after the end of the vegetation.
The sapling that we supply can "survive" for three months. If we do not immediately plant them, they need to be trapped to keep them from drying and freezing.
We recommend plantig of these saplings in autumn or spring, immediately after taking over.
If you do not plant them immediately, stick them in a mixture of sand and sawdust.
After a winter resting period during the first four years after raising the plant, the first job that is waiting for us is a prunning. The prunning should be done during the month of March and our company provides free training for all our customers.
Intensive planting of walnuts requires mandatory irrigation,you need a drop-by-drop system. Without irrigation, these plants can not form properly and we can not expect the same results.Walnut needs 10 liters of water per week, while the seedlings that are young (the first year at your place) need up to 40 liters of water per week in full fertility (8-9 years).
Every year, from autumn or late winter, we make basic fertilization with a combination of mineral and organic fertilizers, around each plant by incorporation according to your soil analysis.
In addition to this basic fertilization, what is far more important is the conservation during vegetation through a -drop by drop system.
The feeding takes place from May to September, twice a month, with a combination of mineral and microbiological fertilizers.
Recommendations for fertilization are provided by our expert team.
CARE OF SAPPLINGS
Around everyone saplings in the first four years hoeing on one meter wide is obligated. It is unacceptable that the space be weedy.
Intermediate in planting for the first 2-3 years you can sift the grass mixture and mow regularly. Then mow or use herbicides that can be used in the garden.
The basic protection is the treatment of copper-based preparations in autumn when 70% of leaves have fallen and in the early spring before the movement of vegetation.
Walnut is not required as far as protection is concerned, it is attacked by economically significant two diseases and several insect species.
- Gray walnut leaf – caused by the parasitic fungus (Gnomonia leptostyla)
- Black bacterial spotted leaf of the walnut – caused by bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv.uglandis)
- Rotten of fruite of walnut– caused by the parasitic fungus (Gleosporium epicarpi)
- Cancer of walnuts caused by the parasitic fungus (Xanthomonas Juglandis Pearce.)
- Rotten veins caused by the parasitic fungus (Armillaria mellea Fah.)
Pests of walnut:
- Apple Moth (Cydia pomonella)
- Walnut Moth (Cydia amplanta)
- Walnut fly (Rhagoletis compeella)
- Lice of Leaf and Mites can also cause damage.
- Red Fruity Spider (Panonychus ulmi)
- The Caterpillars (Hyphantria cunea)
- May bug or cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha)
- Hairy beetle (Tropinota hirta)